ROUGH LECTURE OUTLINE - Spradley: pp 1-68

I. REVIEW of previous lecture (repeat): A. Sticking to data, "hearing data," bracketing our assumptions B. Different types of data, and principles apply whether interviewing, observing, or interpreting images or documents C. Whatever our method, "Language" and symbols are the key. Remember: **Spradley uses example of "tramps," "homeless," "bums" and how those terms shape what the researcher thinks (see Nels Anderson's "The Hobo" II. Spradley: Chapter 3 A. Informants ("conversational partners") are "knoweldgeable sources, familiar with the culture) B. The role of researcher: 1) Subjects (beware of defining them in a way that boxes you in) 2) Respondents: Anybody you talk to. YOU must make them good respondents with questions and rapport 3) Actors: People who are the object of observation (See how Spradley sorted this out on p 33: His point - seemingly different responses can form a pattern (synchronic, right?) 4) Dangers of talking to friends - be careful! 5) Should "informants" have access to your notes, as Spradley says? C. Review ethical principles: (See our handouts and earlier lectures) III. Getting Started: Spradley--Step one A. Locating an Informant 1) Figure out what you want to know and how you want to ask it 2) Identify those most likely to have the information B. Remember: Not all "interviews" are formal--many ways to "talk" IV: Step Two: Interviewing A. "Friendly Conversation" (informal, often ice-breakig) 1) "greetings" - breaking the ice 2) Lack of purpose/"winging it" - often fishing 3) Avoiding repitition 4) Asking questions (subtle and incisive) 5) Expressing interest (motivation, drawing out, pursuit) 6) Expressing ignorance ("it pays to be stupid") 7) Taking turns (don't interrupt--let them talk) 8) Abbreviating (beware of "short-hand" code) 9) Pausing (it's ok for silence, sometimes) 10) "Leave taking" - how to exit B. Ethnographic interview (more formal and prepared): THREE KEY STEPS 1) EXPLICIT PURPOSE (what's happening?) 2) Ethnographic explanations (get full picture from THEM) a. Project explanations to subject b. Recording explanations (let them know what you're doing) c. Native language explanations (get in THEIR terms) d. Interview explanations (direction for informations) e. Question explanations ("steering and pumping") 3) Ethnographic questions a. Descriptive ("describe what you did when you got out of bed") b. Structural ("step by step, how do you join a sorority?") c. Contrast ("What's the difference between the Cubs and Sox") C. Step 2: Interviewing the informant 1) "The Friendly conversation" --Greetings/breaking the ice --Informal/no agenda or definite purpose-exploring --AVOID REPITITION --ASK QUESTIONS --Express Genuine Interest --Taking turns (don't monopolize) --abbreviating (interactional short cuts) --Pausing--It's ok (don't feel forced to talk) --Leaving (graceful exits) 2) Ethnographic Interview a) Explicit purpose (what's the goal?) b) Ethnographic explanations - **Project Explanations **Recording Explanations **Native language explanations **Interview Explanations **Question explanatinos c) Ethnographic questions (CRITICALLY IMPORTANT!!!) **Descriptive questions **Structural questions **Contrast questions

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